Lecturer: Yanjing Wang (王彦晶)

2nd week, 17:00-18:00

Room: 52.119

Website: http://www.phil.pku.edu.cn/personal/wangyj/ESSLLI15/

Standard epistemic logic focuses on propositional knowledge (in terms of “knowing that“). However, various forms of knowledge are used in everyday life, which suggest non-standard but interesting new epistemic operators. In this course, I survey the recent line of work on modal logics based on “knowing whether", “knowing what" and \knowing how" operators. These new logics are not normal modal logics due to the lack of standard modal axioms, which require new techniques to handle. I will focus on the axiomatizations of such epistemic logics but will also cover issues such as decidability, definability and technical/philosophical comparisons between them and the standard epistemic logic.

Lecture 1: Standard epistemic logic and motivation (slides)

Main Ref (besides the “usual suspects”):

- Ren-June Wang:
*Timed Modal Epistemic Logic*. PhD thesis (Ch.2&3 about the history of EL), City University of New York (2011) - Hintikka, J., Hintikka, M.: Reasoning about knowledge in philosophy: The paradigm of epistemic logic. In:
*The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic*. Volume 200 of Synthese Library. Springer Netherlands (1989) 17–35

About formal semantics and logic of questions (surveys):

- D. Harrah: The logic of questions, Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Second Edition (D. Gabbay and F. Guenthner, eds.), vol. 8, Kluwer, Dordrecht/Boston/London, 2002, pp. 1–60.
- A. Wiśniewski: Semantics of questions, Handbook of Contemporary Semantics. Second Edition (S. Lappin and C. Fox, eds.), Wiley-Blackwell, 2014.

- P. Egré: Question-embedding and factivity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 77(1) (2008) 85– 125

- Y. Wang, Q. Cao: On axiomatizations of public announcement logic. Synthese 190 (1s): 103-134 (2013). Springer
- Y. Wang, G. Aucher: An Alternative Axiomatization of DEL and its Applications, in Proceedings of IJCAI 2013: pp. 1139-1146. AAAI press.

- Fitting, M., First-order intensional logic, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 127 (2004), pp. 171-193.
- Holliday, Wesley H. & Perry, John (2014). Roles, Rigidity, and Quantification in Epistemic Logic. In Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets (eds.), Trends in Logic, Outstanding Contributions: Johan van Benthem on Logic and Information Dynamics. Springer 591-629.
- F. Belardinelli, A. Lomuscio, Quantified epistemic logics for reasoning about knowledge in multi-agent systems, Artificial Intelligence, Volume 173, Issues 9–10, June 2009, Pages 982-1013.
- G. Corsi, E. Orlandelli: Free Quantified Epistemic Logics. Studia Logica 101(6): 1159-1183 (2013)

- Kracht, M., Wolter, F.: Simulation and transfer results in modal logic - A survey. Studia Logica 59(1) (1997) 149–177

- Maria Aloni and Floris Roelofsen. Interpreting Concealed Questions Linguistics and Philosophy 34(5), 443-478, 2011
- Maria Aloni. Quantification under Conceptual Covers. PhD thesis University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 2001.

Lecture 2: Logics of “knowing whether” (slides)

Main Ref:

- Hart, S., Heifetz, A., & Samet, D.: Knowing whether, knowing that, and the cardinality of state spaces. Journal of Economic Theory, 70(1), 249–256. (1996)
- W. van der Hoek and A. Lomuscio: A logic for ignorance.
*Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science*, 85(2)(2):117-133, 2004. - J. Fan, Y. Wang and H. van Ditmarsch: Contingency and knowing whether, in
*Review of Symbolic Logic*8 (1):75-107 (2015), Cambridge University Press - J. Fan, Y. Wang and H. van Ditmarsch: Almost necessary, in
*Advances in Modal Logic*Vol. 10: 178-197 (2014), College Publications - J. Fan, H. van Ditmarsch: Neighborhood Contingency Logic. in Proceedings of ICLA 2015: 88-99
- There is a large body of research on contingency logics (too many to be listed here): see our RSL paper and Jie’s thesis for surveys and comparisons with earlier work.
- 如果你能读中文：范杰 《非偶然算子的逻辑研究》 博士论文 北京大学 2015 (Logical Studies for Non-contingency Operator PhD thesis of Jie Fan , in Chinese)

Other pointers:

- Ciardelli, I., Roelofsen, F.: Inquisitive dynamic epistemic logic. Synthese 192(6) (2015) 1643– 1687
- M. Aloni, P. Égré, Tikitu de Jager: Knowing whether A or B. Synthese 190(14): 2595-2621 (2013)

Lecture 3: Logics of “knowing what” (slides)

Main Ref:

- Jan Plaza: Logics of public communications. In
*Proceedings of the 4th ISMIS*Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, pp. 201–216. (1989) - McCarthy, J., First-Order theories of individual concepts and propositions, Machine Intelligence 9. (1979), pp. 129-147.
- H. van Ditmarsch. Comments to ’logics of public communications’. Synthese, 158(2):181– 187, 2007.
- Yanjing Wang, Jie Fan: Knowing that, Knowing what, and Public Communication: Public Announcement Logic with Kv Operators, in
*Proceedings of IJCAI 2013*: 1147-1154. AAAI press. - Yanjing Wang, Jie Fan: Conditionally knowing what, in
*Advances in Modal Logic*Vol. 10: 569-587 (2014), College Publications - 如果你能读中文：熊世豪：逻辑ELKv^r的可判定性 本科生毕业论文 北京大学 2014；丁一峰：关于函数依赖关系的认知逻辑 本科生毕业论文 北京大学 2015 （需要请与我联系）

- About proving incompleteness and ETL-like method for PAL:
- Y. Wang, Q. Cao: On axiomatizations of public announcement logic. Synthese 190 (1s): 103-134 (2013). Springer
- About various kinds of knowledge in security:
- F. Dechesne, Y. Wang: To know or not to know: epistemic approaches to security protocol verification. Synthese 177(S1): 51-76 (2010), Springer

- About knowing value and knowing whether in AI (epistemic) planning:

- R. Petrick, F. Bacchus: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Planning with Incomplete Information and Sensing. AIPS 2002: 212-222

Lecture 4: Logics of “knowing how” (slides)

Main Ref：

- Gochet, P.: An open problem in the logic of knowing how. In Hintikka, J., ed.: Open Problems in Epistemology. The Philosophical Society of Finland (2013)
- Ågotnes, T., Goranko, V., Jamroga, W., Wooldridge, M.: Knowledge and ability. In van Ditmarsch, H., Halpern, J., van der Hoek, W., Kooi, B., eds.: Handbook of Epistemic Logic. College Publications (2015) 543–589
- Yanjing Wang: A logic of knowing how, to appear in
*Proceedings of LORI2015*, Springer - Yanjing Wang: Representing Imperfect Information of Procedures with Hyper Models. in
*Proceedings of ICLA 2015*: 218-231. Springer. - Quan Yu, Yanjun Li, Yanjing Wang: A Dynamic Epistemic Framework for Conformant Planning, in
*Proceedings of TARK2015*: 249-259, ACM Digital Library - Tszyuen Lau and Yanjing Wang: Formalizing knowing how (manuscript)
- 如果你能读中文： 刘梓源：知道如何的形式刻画 （Tszyuen Lau’s master thesis: Formalizing knowing how in Chinese）
- About discussion between intellectualism and anti-intellectualism see this Philpaper page (edited by Bengson)

Lecture 5: Future work (slides)