Complexity Digest 2002.17 April-26-2002

Archive:  http://www.comdig.org, European Mirror:  http://www.comdig.de

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"I think the next century will be the century of complexity." Stephen Hawking


  1. 5 Habits of Highly Reliable Organizations, Fast Company/MeansBusiness
    1. Management: Al Qaida, Un Modèle Économique?, Courrier International
  2. Winners Don't Take All: Characterizing The Competition For Links On The Web, PNAS
  3. Curvature Of Co-Links Uncovers Hidden Thematic Layers In The World Wide Web, PNAS
  4. Supercomputing '@Home' Paying Off for Other Research, NYTimes
    1. Supercomputer Smashes World Speed Record, New Scientist
  5. Biological Computation: Amazing Algorithms, Nature
    1. Solution of a 20-Variable 3-SAT Problem on a DNA Computer, Science
  6. Early Life Of Fetus Affects Organs' Future Health, Nature Science Update
  7. Heart And Liver Have Rhythm: Organ Clocks Orchestrate Physiology, Nature Science Update
  8. World Bank Aims To Help Poor Receive Elementary Education, NYTimes
  9. Learning Geometrically-Constrained Hidden Markov Models for Robot Navigation, JAIR
  10. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Of A Cutting Process, Neurocomputing
  11. Entropic Analysis Of The Role Of Words In Literary Texts, Adv. Complex Sys
  12. Taiwan's Scientists Clone Pigs Which Carry Human DNA, AP/Taipei Times
  13. Non-Coding RNAs: The Architects Of Eukaryotic Complexity , EMBO Reports
    1. Biological Dark Matter, Newfound RNA Suggests A Hidden Complexity Inside Cells, Science News
    2. The Evolution Of Controlled Multitasked Gene Networks , Molecular Biology and Evolution
  14. Biodiversity: Microbial Genomes Multiply, Nature
  15. A Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Framework For The Dynamics And Stability Of Ecosystems, arXiv
  16. Deprived of Darkness, The Unnatural Ecology Of Artificial Light At Night, Science News
  17. Augmented Reality: A New Way of Seeing, Scientific American
    1. 3-D, and Ditch the Glasses, Wired
  18. Fighting Fruit Flies: A Model System For The Study Of Aggression, PNAS
  19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks
    1. Saudi Prince Bluntly Tells Bush To Temper Support For Israel, NYTimes
    2. The US's Mideast Disconnect, The Brookings Institution/The Christian Science Monitor
    3. Standing Alone With Our Views on Terrorism, The Brookings Institution/LA Times
    4. White House Cut 93% Of Funds Sought To Guard Atomic Arms, NYTimes
    5. House Panel Backs Bush Plan For Nevada Nuclear Waste Site, NYTimes
    6. Early Statistical Detection Of Anthrax Outbreaks By Tracking Over-The-Counter Medication Sales, PNAS
  20. Links & Snippets
    1. Other Publications
    2. Webcast Announcements
    3. Course Announcements
    4. Conference Announcements 


1.  5 Habits of Highly Reliable Organizations, Fast Company/MeansBusiness

Excerpts: 'High-reliability organizations' -- operations such as aircraft-carrier and nuclear-power-plant crews--…share two essential characteristics: They constantly confront the unexpected and operate with remarkable consistency and effectiveness. In the wake of today's business turbulence and, more recently, just plain bad business, Weick's analysis of HROs offers important lessons. (…)

[Weick's] five habits of highly reliable organizations:

  1. Don't be tricked by your success.
  2. Defer to your experts on the front line.
  3. Let the unexpected circumstances provide your solution.
  4. Embrace complexity.
  5. Anticipate -- but also anticipate your limits."

 

Comment: Is bin Laden the new Tom Peters/Michael Hammer/Peter Drucker??? This article talks about a company in Brazil that is considering adopting the Al Qaeda organizational model for it's corporate structure! Why? Because it is resilient, adaptive, and processes information quickly. But do they know what the *real* Al Qaeda structure is?

 

2. Winners Don't Take All: Characterizing The Competition For Links On The Web, PNAS

Excerpts: As a whole, the World Wide Web displays a striking "rich get richer" behavior, with a relatively small number of sites receiving a disproportionately large share of hyperlink references and traffic. (…) we discover a qualitatively different and considerably less biased link distribution among subcategories of pages for example, among all university homepages or all newspaper homepages. Although the connectivity distribution over the entire web is close to a pure power law, we find that the distribution within specific categories is typically unimodal on a log scale (…).

 

3. Curvature Of Co-Links Uncovers Hidden Thematic Layers In The World Wide Web, PNAS

Excerpts: We begin by noting that reciprocal links (co-links) between pages signal a mutual recognition of authors and then focus on triangles containing such links, because triangles indicate a transitive relation. The importance of triangles is quantified by the clustering coefficient (…) which we interpret as a curvature (…). This curvature defines a World Wide Web landscape whose connected regions of high curvature characterize a common topic. We show experimentally that reciprocity and curvature, when combined, accurately capture this meta-information for a wide variety of topics.

 

4. Supercomputing '@Home' Paying Off for Other Research, NYTimes

Excerpt: "Even if we were given all the National Science Foundation supercomputing centers combined for a couple of months, that is still fewer resources than we have now, said Dr. Vijay Pande, the Stanford University biologist who directs Folding@home.

Last year Dr. Pande's research group set a record by using its volunteer network to simulate 38 microseconds of the folding of a snippet of protein called the beta-hairpin. That doesn't sound like much, but the previous record was one microsecond, and that took several months on a Cray supercomputer.

 

Excerpts: A Japanese supercomputer has recorded the fastest "floating point" calculation speed of any computer on the planet. The feat is reported in the latest edition of the Linpack report (…).

The Earth Simulator at the Marine Science and Technology Center in Kanagawa, notched up 35.61 teraflops - that is over 35 trillion "floating point" calculations per second.

The speed is five times faster than that recorded by the previous record holder, IBM's ASCI White at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. This computer achieved a benchmark of 7.23 teraflops.

 

5. Biological Computation: Amazing Algorithms, Nature

Excerpt: The 'mechanistic view' is that complex computations are implemented as hierarchical combinations of simpler ones, so an understanding of basic neural mechanisms will be a key that helps to unlock many complex phenomena.

In the 'algorithmic view', complex algorithms cannot be deduced from simple mechanisms as there are emergent computational principles that cannot be found by combining biophysical components. By analogy, the mathematics involved in rendering three-dimensional graphics on a computer do not follow from the workings of transistors.

 

Excerpt: A 20-variable instance of the NP-complete three-satisfiability (3-SAT) problem was solved on a simple DNA computer. The unique answer was found after an exhaustive search of more than 1 million (220) possibilities. This computational problem may be the largest yet solved by non-electronic means. (…)

The vast parallelism, exceptional energy efficiency, and extraordinary information density inherent in molecular computation have raised the possibility that molecular computers might some day prove capable of attacking problems that have resisted conventional methods

 

6. Early Life Of Fetus Affects Organs' Future Health, Nature Science Update

Excerpts: How fetal tissues are permanently altered remains largely unknown. Cells that give rise to an organ may be susceptible to external signals (…). Anything that interrupts these signals could alter the cell types that survive to contribute to the organ. (…), kidney development can be altered by stress that occurs even before it has formed. At the equivalent point in human pregnancy - at around 5-7 weeks - many women are unaware of their condition. Pregnant women who know they are stressed should try and take a little time out to relax or sleep.

 

7. Heart And Liver Have Rhythm: Organ Clocks Orchestrate Physiology, Nature Science Update

Contributing Editor's Note: Human body's organs run timekeepers which coordinate regular activities such as metabolism, digestion and blood pressure. For example, our brain carries a central circadian clock whose activity has a 24-hour cycle. That’s why appropriate organs gear up at feeding times. In the following report, researchers looked into the genes to get a closer view of this.

Excerpts: (…) compared more than 12,000 genes active in liver and heart over two days while mice were exposed to constant light. Between 8 and 10% of genes in each tissue varied their activity following the 24-hour cycle, they found - a measure of the large influence of time on the body. But few of the genes cycling in the heart were also cycling in the liver. And although heart genes tend to peak synchronously, liver genes peak through morning, noon and night.
"They're marching to a drum beaten by the brain, but peripheral clocks can step out and do their own thing."

 

8. World Bank Aims To Help Poor Receive Elementary Education, NYTimes

Excerpts: Calling education crucial to the reduction of global poverty, international finance ministers approved a World Bank plan today aimed at enrolling all young children in elementary school.

As a start, 10 poor nations that have been making progress on education recently could receive about $1 billion in combined aid to carry out strategies they devise. (…)

About 125 million children in that age group, or about one of five in poor nations, do not attend school. More than three-quarters live in Africa or South Asia, the bank said.

 

9. Learning Geometrically-Constrained Hidden Markov Models for Robot Navigation, JAIR

Abstract: Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) provide useful tools for modeling dynamical systems. They are particularly useful for representing the topology of environments such as road networks and office buildings, which are typical for robot navigation and planning. The work presented here describes a formal framework for incorporating readily available odometric information and geometrical constraints into both the models and the algorithm that learns them. By taking advantage of such information, learning HMMs/POMDPs can be made to generate better solutions and require fewer iterations, while being robust in the face of data reduction. Experimental results, obtained from both simulated and real robot data, demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

 

10. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Of A Cutting Process, Neurocomputing

Excerpts: The dynamics of a cutting process are very complex due to the nonlinear effects of high order involved. The control objective is to construct an on-line control system capable of improving the quality of the manufactured surface by preventing tool oscillations which result in the rough surface of the workpiece. A feedforward network is applied as an experimental model of the cutting process, and MPC strategy with tool support manipulation as a control variable is investigated. The results show considerable improvement of the manufacturing quality obtained by the proposed nonlinear model predictive control.

 

11. Entropic Analysis Of The Role Of Words In Literary Texts, Adv. Complex Sys

Abstract: Beyond the local constraints imposed by grammar, words concatenated in long sequences carrying a complex message show statistical regularities that may reflect their linguistic role in the message. We show that there is a quantitative relation between the role of content words in literary English and the Shannon information entropy defined over an appropriate probability distribution. Without assuming any previous knowledge about the syntactic structure of language, we are able to cluster certain groups of words according to their specific role in the text.

 

12. Taiwan's Scientists Clone Pigs Which Carry Human DNA, AP/Taipei Times

Excerpts: Taiwanese scientists have cloned pigs that carry genetic material from both human and pig cells, a breakthrough that might lead to new treatments for hemophilia and other diseases, (…).

The three female pigs, between two weeks and two months old, (…) were in excellent health (…).

To create the clones, scientists first had to transfer genetic material from both human and pig cells into a 3-year-old pig (…).

Scientists then took cells from the pig's ear and injected them into the egg cells of other pigs to create the clones (…).

 

13. Non-Coding RNAs: The Architects Of Eukaryotic Complexity , EMBO Reports

Editor's Note: Sooner than we expected Stephen Hawking 's prophecy of a "century of complexity" is coming true. That implies an explosion of complexity related research and applications. Even with the help of a growing number of contributing editors it has become unavoidable to report on all the relevant publications in this field. Therefore we are grateful to Dr. Mattick and encourage all our readers to alert us of important articles that we might have overlooked.

Author's Summary: The vast majority of the transcriptional output of the human genome is noncoding RNA. The evidence suggests that the central dogma (DNA makes RNA makes protein) is incomplete and that the majority of the genomic programming in the higher organisms consists of non-protein-coding RNA which forms a higher order parallel processing system / molecular memory / neural network and which integrates and multitasks complex suites of gene activity during autopoeitic differentiation and development. Thus the actual basis of the evolution of biological complexity may lie in the development and encoding of a sophisticated control architecture, rather than the evolution of the protein components per se.

To answer your question: The ratio of protein-coding to non-protein-coding sequences in prokaryotic genomes is no less than 90%. In humans it is no more than about 2%.

 

14. Biodiversity: Microbial Genomes Multiply, Nature

Excerpt: The genomes of eukaryotes are, however, often greatly inflated by the presence of considerable amounts of non-coding DNA, (…). In contrast, most prokaryotes have their genes tightly packed together with very little intergenic space, and they do not have introns in the genes that encode proteins. When the genes themselves are counted, the information content of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is not nearly so disparate as would seem from raw genome size. Indeed, the number of genes in the largest bacterial genomes actually exceeds the number in some eukaryotes.

 

15. A Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Framework For The Dynamics And Stability Of Ecosystems, arXiv

Abstract: The population dynamics and stability of ecosystems of interacting species is studied from the perspective of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by assuming that species, through their biotic and abiotic interactions, are units of entropy production and exchange in an open thermodynamic system with constant external constraints. Within the context of the linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics, such a system will naturally evolve towards a stable stationary state in which the production of entropy within the ecosystem is at a local minimum value. It is shown that this extremal condition leads to equations for the stationary (steady) state population dynamics of interacting species, more general than those of Lotka-Volterra, and to conditions on the parameters of the community interaction matrix guaranteeing ecosystem stability. The paradoxical stability of real complex ecosystems thus has a simple explanation within the proposed framework. Furthermore, it is shown that the second law of thermodynamics constrains the inter- and intra-species interaction coefficients in the sense of maintaining stability during evolution from one stationary state to another. A firm connection is thus established between the second law of thermodynamics and natural selection.

 

16. Deprived of Darkness, The Unnatural Ecology Of Artificial Light At Night, Science News

Excerpts: Some of the best data on light pollution's effects on wildlife come from the coast of Florida, where sea turtles are struggling to survive the encroachment of urban development on their nesting sites. (...)

Wetlands-home to many frogs and salamanders-could be one of the first types of habitat to benefit from measures controlling light pollution. "Because wetlands are already afforded some protections, it would be relatively straightforward to add [artificial light] to the list of things they should be protected from," says Longcore.

 

17. Augmented Reality: A New Way of Seeing, Scientific American

Excerpts:  Augmented reality (AR) refers to computer displays that add virtual information to a user's sensory perceptions. Most AR research focuses on "see-through" devices, usually worn on the head, that overlay graphics and text on the user's view of his or her surroundings. (Virtual information can also be in other sensory forms, such as sound or touch (…)

AR systems track the position and orientation of the user's head so that the overlaid material can be aligned with the user's view of the world.

 

Excerpts:  Such three-dimensional displays open up a whole new world for medicine, science and other professions that rely on complex visualizations. (…)

Two small cameras perched on one of the monitors track eye movement (…)

At the same time, patterns of 20 microstripes per inch flash across the front display in three separate cycles, with each cycle taking 1/60th of a second to complete. Each stripe is seen only by one eye. As a result, the left and right eyes see a different image (…)

 

 18. Fighting Fruit Flies: A Model System For The Study Of Aggression, PNAS

 Despite the importance of aggression in the behavioral repertoire of most animals, relatively little is known of its proximate causation and control. To take advantage of modern methods of genetic analysis for studying this complex behavior, we have developed a quantitative framework for studying aggression in common laboratory strains of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. (…)recurrent patterns in behaviors with some similarity to those seen during courtship. (…) a detailed examination of aggressive behavior by using mutant strains and other techniques of genetic analysis becomes possible.

 

19. Complex Challenges: Global Terrorist Networks

Excerpts: Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia bluntly told President Bush today that the United States must temper its support for Israel or face serious consequences throughout the Arab world. (…)

``If Sharon is left to his own devices, he will drag the region over a cliff,'' said Adel al-Jubeir, the foreign policy adviser to the crown prince, after the meeting between Abdullah and Mr. Bush. ``That does not serve America's interests, and it does not serve Saudi Arabia's interests.''

 

Excerpts:  While Israelis rolled their tanks through Palestinian towns and refugee camps, Arab leaders would have delegitimized themselves with their people, had they responded to Powell without seeing an end to Israeli operations. (…)

Arab satellite television stations and other world media carry live pictures of the horror in Palestinian cities and live phone calls from Palestinian men and women calling events massacres and atrocities - in the same way that Israeli media focus on the horrible deaths of innocent Israelis.

  • The US's Mideast Disconnect, Shibley Telhami; Foreign Policy Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, The Christian Science Monitor, 02/04/15

 

Excerpt: The Bush administration has been waging the global war on terrorism as if terrorism is a movement, an ideology, a political coalition, with little differentiation from case to case. This has distorted our moral view of the world and enabled even Slobodan Milosevic to justify his horrific policies of death and ethnic cleansing.

Terrorism is an instrument, not a movement. It is an immoral means employed by groups, some of which have just causes, some of which don't.

 

Excerpt: The White House cut 93 percent of a recent request by the secretary of energy for money to improve the security of nuclear weapons and waste, according to a letter from the secretary.

The money, for guarding nuclear weapons, weapons materials and radioactive waste under the Energy Department's supervision, was part of a $27.1 billion emergency spending bill before Congress, the second such measure to be considered since the Sept. 11 attacks.

"Failure to support these urgent security requirements is a risk that would be unwise," the letter said.

 

Excerpt: Some critics of the Yucca Mountain plan contend that transporting the waste by truck or rail would create security and safety risks before the material even arrived in Nevada. Representative Ed Markey, Democrat of Massachusetts, asserted that moving the waste over long distances could create "a potential mobile Chernobyl."

 

Excerpt:  This paper describes a statistical framework for monitoring grocery data to detect a large-scale but localized bioterrorism attack. Our system illustrates the potential of data sources that may be more timely than traditional medical and public health data. The system includes several layers, each customized to grocery data and tuned to finding footprints of an epidemic. We also propose an evaluation methodology that is suitable in the absence of data on large-scale bioterrorist attacks and disease outbreaks.

20. Links & Snippets

20.1 Other Publications
  1. ESA takes a new look at the Moon, M. Talevi, European Space Agency  Alphagalileo, 23 April 2002
  2. Multiple Parallel Memory Systems In The Brain Of The Rat, White N.M. & McDonald R. J., Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 77, no. 2, pp.125-184(60), March 2002
  3. Cardiovascular Control Using Artificial Neuronal Structures-Modeling The Baroreceptor Regulation Mechanism, J. F. Canete , D. G. Vega, M. David & A. García-Cerezo, Neurocomputing, Vol. 43 (1-4), pp. 37-50, March 2002
  4. Electronic Editor: Automatic Content-Based Sequential Compilation Of Newspaper Articles, V. Ollikainen, C. Backstrom &  I. Samuel, Neurocomputing, Vol. 43 (1-4), pp. 91-106, March 2002
  5. Efficient Neural Network Learning Using Second Order Information With Fuzzy Control, Peitsang Wu  , Shu-Cherng F.&  Henry L.W. N., Neurocomputing, Vol. 43 (1-4),  pp. 197-217, March 2002
  6. Threat Credibility And Weapons Of Mass Destruction, L. E. Moores, Medscape, April 24,2002
  7. Language-Specific Tuning Of Visual Cortex? Functional Properties Of The Visual Word Form Area, L. Cohen, S. Lehericy, F. Chochon, C. Lemer, S. Rivaud & S. Dehaene, Brain, Vol. 125, No. 5, pp:1054-1069, May 2002
  8. Dynamics Of Complex Systems, Yaneer Bar-Yam, 1995 is now available (for free!) online.
  9. Individual Differences Versus Social Dynamics In The Formation Of Animal Dominance Hierarchies, Ivan D. Chase, Craig Tovey, Debra Spangler-Martin, and Michael Manfredonia, PNAS 2002;99 5744-5749
  10. Molecular Self-Assembly Of Surfactant-Like Peptides To Form Nanotubes And Nanovesicles, Sylvain Vauthey, Steve Santoso, Haiyan Gong, Nicki Watson, Shuguang Zhang, PNAS 2002;99 5355-5360
  11. Coping With Crowds: Density-Dependent Disease Resistance In Desert Locusts, Kenneth Wilson, Matthew B. Thomas, Simon Blanford, Matthew Doggett, Stephen J. Simpson, Sarah L. Moore, PNAS 2002;99 5471-5475
  12. Origin Of A Complex Key Innovation In An Obligate Insect-Plant Mutualism, Olle Pellmyr, Harald W. Krenn, PNAS 2002;99 5498-5502
  13. Amyloid Fibers Are Water-Filled Nanotubes, M. F. Perutz, J. T. Finch, J. Berriman, A. Lesk, PNAS 2002;99 5591-5595
  14. The Neural System That Bridges Reward And Cognition In Humans: An fMRI Study, J. B. Pochon, R. Levy, P. Fossati, S. Lehericy, J. B. Poline, B. Pillon, D. Le Bihan, B. Dubois, PNAS 2002;99 5669-5674
  15. Perception Of Biological Motion Without Local Image Motion, J. A. Beintema, M. Lappe, PNAS 2002;99 5661-5663
  16. Somatosensory Feedback Modulates The Respiratory Motor Program Of Crystallized Birdsong, Roderick A. Suthers, Franz Goller, J. Martin Wild, PNAS 2002;99 5680-5685
  17. Modulation Of Contraction/Extension Molecular Motion By Coupled-Ion Binding/Ph Change-Induced Structural Switching, Mihail Barboiu, Jean-Marie Lehn,PNAS 2002;99 5201-5206
  18. Evidence For Interpersonal Violence In The St. Cesaire Neanderthal, Christoph P. E. Zollikofer, Marcia S. Ponce de Leon, Bernard, Vandermeersch, and Francois Leveque, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Published 23 April 2002, 10.1073/pnas.082111899
  19. The Pythagorean Theorem: II. The Infinite Discrete Case, Richard V. Kadison, PNAS 2002;99 5217-5222
  20. Cosmic Remodeling: Superwinds Star In Early Universe, Science News, Vol. 161, No. 16, April 20, 2002, p. 244, (Audible) New measurements reveal that some of the earliest galaxies in the universe produced winds so powerful and persistent that they blew material from one galaxy to another, temporarily separating dark matter from visible matter and profoundly influencing the evolution of future generations of galaxies.
  21. Direct Cortical Input Modulates Plasticity And Spiking In Ca1 Pyramidal Neurons, Miguel Remondes And Erin M. Schuman, Nature 416, 736 - 740 (2002)

 

20.2 Coming and Ongoing Webcasts

  1. The War On Terrorism: What Does It Mean for Science?, Audio Files from the AAAS Symposium , 01/12/18
  2. Press Coverage and the War on Terrorism, The Impact of September 11 on Public Opinion: Increased Patriotism, Unity, Support for Bush; More Interest in News, A Brookings/Harvard Forum, The Brookings Institution, 02/03/27 (video)
  3. 2002 Complex Systems Lecture Series, University of Alaska Anchorage
    1. Computation Of Chaos, Complexity, And Computability With Applications To Real World Problems, Julian Palmore, 02/04/05 (21:30GMT)
    2. The Particle Swarm Algorithm: Discoveries, Investigations, And New Frontiers, James Kennedy, 02/04/12 (19:00GMT)
    3. Complex Networks: From The Internet To The Genome, Dr. Ricard Solé, 02/04/19 (09:00GMT)
  4. The Tenth Annual, Enterprise Value Retreat & Awards Ceremony, Tucson, Arizona, 02/01/27-30 (a.o. Jaron Lanier, "Not Being There")(video)
  5. The Adaptive Enterprise in Action, The Center for Business Innovation, online until June 2002
  6. Center for Preventive Action Special Event, Kofi Annan, John W. Vessey, Webcast, 02/03/06
  7. Protecting the Homeland Through Executive Leadership And Effective Communication, Princeton, NJ, 02/04/23
  8. Foresight Senior Associate Gathering: "Exploring the Edges", April 26-28, 2002 Palo Alto, California

 

20.3 Course Announcements

  1. Complexity, Chaos And Creativity, Masters Program Offered Through The Internet, The Academic Group 'Quadruple C' At The University Of Western Sydney
  2. One-Day Course: Introduction to Complex Systems, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02/04/30
  3. Two Week Advanced Course and Supervised Study/Research in Complex Systems, July 2002, Cambridge, MA

      

20.4 Conference Announcements 

  1. Protecting The Homeland: Lessons Learned and Policy Implications of 9/11, Washington, DC, 02/04/29-05/01
  2. World Conference NL 2002 - Networked Learning in a Global Environment: Challenges and Solutions for Virtual Education, Berlin, Germany, 02/05/01-04
  3. Electronic Conference on Foundations of Information Science: The Nature Of Information: Conceptions, Misconceptions, And Paradoxes, 02/05/06
  4. Managing Complex Organizations In A Complex World, Cambridge, MA, 02/05/09-10
  5. Understanding Complex Systems: Complexity In Physical And Biological Structures, Medicine & Ecology, U. Illinois At Urbana-Champaign, 02/05/13-15
  6. Mass Customisation: Strategies and Enabling Technology, U. Warwick, UK, 02/05/14-15
  7. International Conference Ethics and Technological Complexity, Louvain-la-Neuve, 02/05/29-31
  8. International Conference SocioPhysics, ZIF - Bielefeld, Germany, 02/06/06-09
  9. International Conference on Complex Systems (ICCS2002), Nashua, NH, 02/06/9-14
  10. Sitges Conference "Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks", Sitges, Spain, 02/06/10-14
  11. 2nd International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL'02), Cambridge, Massachusetts USA, 02/06/12-15
  12. AES 22nd International Conference on Virtual, Synthetic And Entertainment Audio, Espoo, Finland, 02/06/15-17
  13. Complex Systems: Control and Modeling Problems, Samara, Russia, 02/06/17
  14. International Conference: Emergence in Chemical Systems, University of Alaska Anchorage, 02/06/20-23
  15. Let's Face Chaos Through Nonlinear Dynamics, Maribor, Slovenia, 02/06/30 - 07/14
  16. 7th International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition - ICMPC7, Sydney, 02/07/17-21
  17. 20th System Dynamics Conference: Organizational Change Dynamics - Understanding Systems, Managing Transformation, Palermo, Italy, 02/07/28-08/01
  18. Complexity and Philosophy, Norwood, Massachusetts, USA, 02/07/29-30
  19. 12th Ann Intl Conf Society For Chaos Theory in Psychology & Life Sciences: Chaos and Complexity in a Changing World, Portland, OR, USA, 02/08/01-04
  20. Self-Organisation and Evolution of Social Behaviour, Monte Verità, Switzerland, 02/09/08-13
  21. Complex Systems (CS02) Complexity with Agent-Based Modeling, Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan, 02/09/10-12
  22. 3rd Intl NAISO Symposium on Engineering Of Intelligent Systems (EIS 20020), Malaga, Spain, 02/09/24-27
  23. Seminar on Non-equilibrium Phenomena and Phase Transitions in Complex Systems, Avila, Spain, 02/09/24-28.
  24. ACRI 2002, 5th Intl Conf on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, Geneva, Switzerland, 02/10/09-11 
  25. Dynamical Systems Methods for Advanced Diagnosis and Prognosis, 39th Annual Technical Meeting of the Society of Engineering Science, University Park, Pennsylvania, 02/10/13-16
  26. 4th Asia-Pacific Conference on Simulated Evolution And Learning (SEAL'02), 9th International Conference on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP'02), International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (FSKD'02), Singapore, 02/11/18-22
  27. Managing the Complex IV, Naples , FL, Early December 2002
  28. Artificial Life VIII, UNSW, Sydney, Australia, 02/12/09-13
  29. Hawaii International Conference On System Sciences (HICSS-36), Big Island, Hawaii, 03/01/06-09
  30. 21st ICDE World Conference on Open Learning and Distance Education, Hong Kong, 03/06/01-05

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